Not until the Qing dynasty (1644–1911) do more finely grained distinctions appear in writing.Even then, discerning which ethnic groups are included in various classifications can be problematic.
For funerary rituals, see Hmong funeral.) are an ethnic group from the mountainous regions of China, Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand.
During the first and second Indochina Wars, France and the United States recruited thousands of Hmong people in Laos to fight against forces from north and south Vietnam and communist Pathet Lao insurgents, known as the Secret War, during the Vietnam War and the Laotian Civil War.
One of the most characteristic differences is the use of the voiceless /m̥/ in White Hmong, indicated by a preceding "H" in Romanized Popular Alphabet.
Voiceless nasals are not found in the Green Hmong dialect.
The White Miao (Bai Miao) and Green Miao (Qing Miao) are Hmong groups.